Distinct Between Indus Valley Civilization and its Contemporary Civilization - GeeksforGeeks (2023)

The oldest civilization of the Asian subcontinent was the Indus Valley Civilization and flourished in the northern region of the Indian subcontinent. The existence of the Indus Valley Civilization spanned from the year 3300 to 1300 BC and the Mesopotamian, the Egyptian, and the Mayan civilization flourished contemporary to it in different parts of the world. The Mesopotamian civilization flourished in the area of the modern-day middle-east part, the Egyptian civilization in modern-day Egypt, and the Mayan civilization prospered in the isolated American continent. The Indus valley civilization is likewise referred to as the Harappan civilization. The civilizations grew in almost the same period but were distinct from each other in many ways like the Egyptians and the Mayans witnessed the construction of the Pyramids whereas there is no evidence of any Pyramid structure in the Indus Valley Civilization and the Mesopotamian civilization. There was a lack of evidence of temples as a place of worship in the Indus Valley Civilization, unlike others. Unlike the Indus valley civilization, Kingdoms arose in the Mesopotamian and the Egyptian civilization.

Geographical Extent

The Indus Valley Civilization is named after the river system it was located around which is now modern-day Northeast Afghanistan, Pakistan, and Northwest India while the oldest civilization ever, the Mesopotamian civilization (the cradle of civilizations), emerged between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers in the Middle East more specifically in modern-day Iraq and Kuwait. The Egyptian civilization grew in the lower reaches of the Nile River and what is currently modern-day Egypt while the Mayan civilization was one of the most prosperous pre-colonial peoples in the Americas. The Harappa civilization alone was larger than the combined area of Egypt and Mesopotamia.

Cities

The Indus Valley Civilization left behind two of its major cities Mohenjo Daro and Harappa. The leavings of those towns displays wonderful organization, engineering, city planning, and structure for his or her time. Both cities were built on a grid-based design and their buildings were made of bricks: clay bricks in Harappa and fired and mortared brick in Mohenjo Daro. In fact, it’s the largest city of this civilization and one of the largest urban centers of the ancient world. The city was split into regions the Citadel and the Lower City. The Citadel contains one of the most remarkable archeological remnants of the city, an 83 square meter bathing pool called the Great Bath. These types of well-structured towns and cities were not seen in other contemporary civilizations instead they made their cities complex.

(Video) What Was The Indus Valley/Harappan Civilisation?

Drainage System

Sanitation, sewage management, and water systems are three things that the people of the Indus River Valley Civilization had in check. Mohenjo-Daro alone had 700 freshwater wells inside its walls, but the most remarkable development of the Indus River Valley civilization was its drainage system. Most buildings and homes had their own bathrooms which were in turn connected to a centralized drainage system connected by several break-made underground drains. The drainage system of the Mesopotamian civilization was very complex in nature while Egyptians were using copper pipes to drain water.

Laws

The Mesopotamians created the code of Hammurabi, one of the earliest and best-preserved written legal codes created by king Hammurabi who reigned from 1792 to 1750 BC during the Babylonian dynasty. This kind of law is known as “Lex talionis” or the law of retaliation. The Code of Hammurabi covered 282 laws carved onto the diorite Stela covering, agriculture property damage, murder, marital affairs, extramarital affairs, women’s rights, slave rights, wages, and many more whereas, in the Indus Valley Civilization people almost treated themselves as equal and also had some laws like social laws, human laws, and personal laws. Laws made during the Indus Valley Civilization were not like as Mesopotamians as Indus’ laws did not deal with murder, marital affairs, etc.

Literature

All the civilizations of the ancient world developed their own style of writing system. Cuneiform text, which is one of the earliest writing systems in human history, was developed in the Mesopotamian civilization while the writing system of the Indus River Valley Civilization is known as the Indus script though no one has been able to decipher their script. Mesopotamians were also dabbling in metalwork literature textile, lacking in the Indus Valley Civilization. The Hieroglyphic writing system is the only writing system developed by a Mesoamerican civilization and their calendar systems were extremely accurate while the calendar system used during the Indus Valley Civilization was the Lunar calendar which was not accurate as it made years 354 days long.

(Video) Introduction to the Indus Valley (Harappan) Civilization

Politics

There is no clear idea about the political organization of the Indus Valley people. The steatite statue of the priest-king suggests that the Indus valley human beings had been greater worried about trade and that they had been dominated with the aid of using a category of merchants. The Egyptians, the Mesopotamians, and the Mayans witnessed the rise of kingdoms (small or large) in their spanned period. The throne or property was inherited by the daughter in Egypt but lack of evidence of a matriarchal system in the Indus Valley.

Pyramids and Temples

At the same time, Mohenjo-Daro was being constructed, around 5,800 km west, pyramids were being raised in Egypt. The Old Kingdom of the Egyptian civilization spanned from 2613 BC to 2181 BC and is also known as the age of the pyramid builders as the Pyramids of Giza were built during this period. The Indus Valley did not witness the construction of pyramids, however, the Mayans also constructed the pyramids in the jungles of Central America and were also used as landmarks to aid in navigation. Most of the pyramids of the Mayans had divine and astronomical purposes.

The Mayans were heavily religious and their art and architecture were deeply connected to their beliefs. The Mayan people built complex temples without modern inventions like the wheel. If we see the historical evidence of the Indus Valley Civilization, they used to worship Pashupati, Peepal trees, animals like elephants, rhinoceros, tigers, and bulls. Serpent worship was also very familiar in the Indus valley civilization. There were no shreds of evidence of temples in this civilization.

(Video) Indus Valley Civilization Facts - History of Ancient India | Educational Videos by Mocomi

Burnt bricks and Science

The Harappan people used burnt bricks remarkably in the construction of buildings, while Egyptians at the same time were using dried bricks. There is evidence of using burnt bricks in Mesopotamia too but were to a lesser extent in comparison to The Indus Valley people. The houses were made of burnt bricks in the Indus Valley Civilization while dried bricks were used when pyramids were constructed in Egypt.

The Sexagesimal math system was developed by Mesopotamians but the Mayans were exceptional at mathematics too while mathematics was unknown in Indus Valley. The Mayans were also predicting celestial movements while there was no evidence of these in Indus Valley. Egyptians were also good with the history of timekeeping such as Sundials, the water clocks, and the division of the days. No remains of timekeeping are found in data of the Indus valley civilization.

Conclusion

The Harappan civilization covered an area much larger than that of the Egyptian and Mesopotamian civilizations. Also, there is no clear idea about the political organization of the Indus Valley people. The laws that were made in the Mesopotamian civilization were also unknown in the Indus Valley Civilization. Burnt bricks had been used remarkably inside the construction of homes in Harappa. Unlike the Egyptians, the Indus Valley Civilization had done nothing with the history of timekeeping. Unlike the Mayans, the style of eye astronomy was absent in the Indus Valley people. Unlike other civilizations of its time, the Indus Valley did not observe the construction of temples. Because of different geographies and limited networking, these civilizations differ in sociocultural practices and even progress. The civilization of the Indus Valley was not only the first urban center but also a progressive society.

(Video) Introduction to the Indus Valley Civilization

My Personal Notesarrow_drop_up

FAQs

How was the Indus Valley civilization different from other civilizations? ›

The Indus Valley Civilizations (IVC) were different from other ancient civilizations in the sense that the IVC did not build any monuments and there is no record of a hereditary king as per the archaeological evidence gathered.

What were the contemporary civilization of Indus Valley? ›

The Indus Civilization of India and Pakistan was contemporary with, and equally complex as the better-known cultures of Mesopotamia, Egypt and China. The dean of North American Indus scholars (Possehl) attempts here to marshal the state of knowledge about this fascinating culture in a readable synthesis.

What is difference between Indus Valley civilization and Harappan civilization? ›

There is no difference between the two. Since Harappa was the first site to be discovered in 1921 by Daya Ram Sahni, hence the Indus Valley Civilisation is also called as the Harappan Civilisation. It's the same thing. Harappa was one of the cities in the Indus Valley Civilization just like Mohan-jo-daro, Lothal etc.

What is the meaning of contemporary civilization? ›

Founded in 1919 as a course on War and Peace Issues, the central purpose of Contemporary Civilization is to introduce students to a range of issues concerning the kinds of communities – political, social, moral, and religious – that human beings construct for themselves and the values that inform and define such ...

How would you compare the Harappan civilization and the present day civilization? ›

As there are rivers to feed the fields, there used t be more production. Hence, Indus Valley people built great granary at Harappa with intention of storing the grains. In present day India, we have no self sufficiency and produced grains and produce was going waste by rotting in Food Corporation of India godowns.

Which civilization is not contemporary of Indus Valley civilization? ›

Chinese civilization

Was this answer helpful?

What were the distinctive features of Indus Valley civilization? ›

Indus Valley Civilization – Main Features
  • Town Planning. (a) Citadel. Great Bath. Granary. An official residence. Assembly Hall. (b) Lower Town. i. Lay-out of the Lower Town (Roads and lanes) ii. Use of mud bricks. iii. Drainage system. iv. Houses.
  • Agriculture (Crop farming and stock breeding) i. Cultivation.
  • Trade Practice.
4 Jun 2021

What are the special features of Indus Valley civilization? ›

People of the Indus valley civilization were hygienic. There were well-planned drainage systems, dustbins made of bricks, and a great bath. Archaeologists have found that there are no temples in Indus valley but the people used to worship ox, and trees like peepal.

How were the Indus Valley cities different from other ancient cities? ›

Both cities were planned, unlike cities in other ancient civilizations, which had grown from villages to towns to cities. They were built on a grid pattern, with wide roads dividing them in rectangular or square blocks packed with mud-brick buildings. Many of the buildings were several stories high.

What is the similarities between Indus Valley civilization and Vedic civilization? ›

The Indus Valley Civilization and the Vedic Civilization had the following similarities ; *Both worshipped Hindu Gods such as Shakthi and Shiva. *Both believed in some sort of life after death. *They also played pre-Indian games such as gambling,dicing, and horse cart riding.

What is difference between Harappan cities and modern cities? ›

Answer: The Indus Valley cities were established on a grid plan while the modern Indian cities are not based on any such plans. 2. Both the Indus Valley and the modern Indian cities have a drainage system but the modern drainage system does not work properly when compared to the Indus Valley cities.

What is the best definition of contemporary? ›

: happening, existing, living, or coming into being during the same period of time. The book is based on contemporary accounts of the war. contemporarily. kən-ˌtem-pə-ˈrer-ə-lē adverb.

What are contemporary examples? ›

Contemporary can also describe things happening now or recently. It's common to speak of contemporary music or contemporary furniture, for example. Those things are new, not old. Anything characteristic of the present day can be called contemporary.

What do we mean contemporary? ›

contemporary adjective (OF SAME PERIOD)

belonging to the same period, or to a stated period in the past: Almost all of the contemporary accounts of the event have been lost. Most of the writers he was contemporary with were interested in the same subjects. More examples.

What is the difference between ancient civilization and present civilization? ›

Solution : Modern civilization depends upon machines for almost all of its where as the ancient civilization there were no machines. Order and safety is an important achievement of the modern civilization where as the ancient civilization suffered from the fear of war and violence.

Why is ancient Indus Valley Civilization known as modern world? ›

Harappan civilization forms an important landmark in the prehistory of the Indian subcontinent. The civilization offers an excellent example to the modern world in various ways. Their expertise in town planning, water management and harvesting systems as well as drainage mechanism is unparalleled.

Are there any similarities and differences between Harappan society and present day society? ›

The harappan socity was a bronze age socity between 2600 to 1800 B.C , they were not so advance if compared to present socity. They used clay pots, Stone made weapons where as today we use aluminum,plastic,steeel and some highly advanced weapons compared to them and they don't even know about electricity.

What was the unique feature of Harappan Civilization which was unknown to other contemporary civilization? ›

The correct answer is urban centers. The most unique feature of the Harappan Civilization was the development of urban centers. Mohenjodaro is the most well-known site of the Harappan Civilization.

Is China civilization is contemporary of Indus Valley Civilization? ›

The Indus Valley is contemporary with the civilizations of Mesopotamia and Ancient Egypt. The civilization is famous for its large and well-planned cities. Over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found. Therefore it is false that Indus Valley Civilization was a contemporary of Chinese Civilization.

What is the conclusion of Indus Valley Civilization? ›

The end was partly caused by changing river patterns. These changes included the drying up of the Hakra River and changes in the course of the Indus River. The river changes disrupted agricultural and economic systems, and many people left the cities of the Indus Valley region.

What were the most distinctive products of the Indus valley? ›

The Harappan seal (Fig. 1.1) is possibly the most distinctive artefact of the Harappan or Indus valley civilisation. Made of a stone called steatite, seals like this one often contain animal motifs and signs from a script that remains undeciphered.

What was one of the most unique features of Indus valley cities? ›

Drainage System: The Indus Valley Civilisation had advanced sewerage and drainage systems. All houses in the major cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro had access to water and drainage facilities. Waste water was directed to covered gravity sewers, which lined the major streets.

What is the most distinctive feature of Harappan civilization? ›

Ans: The most unique feature of the Harappan Civilization was the development of urban centres. Mohenjodaro is the most well-known site of Harappan Civilization. structure of 'Great Bath' suggested that it was meant for some kind of special ritual bath. The Lower Town The lower town was also walled.

What are are three achievements of Indus Valley civilization? ›

The following achievements can be attributed to the Harappan civilization of the Indus River Valley:
  • Accurate system of weights and measures were developed.
  • Created sculpture, seals and pottery from materials such as terracotta, metals and stone.
  • Major advances in transportation technology took place.

What is difference between ancient city and modern city? ›

In modern cities there are various industries present while in the ancient cities there were no or very few industries. The modern cities grow in population and so do their efficiencies and productivity. Modern cities have developed more infrastructure than ancient cities.

What is the noticeable difference between the Harappa cities and those of other civilization? ›

Geographical Extent: The Harappa civilization was 20 times greater than Egypt and 12 times larger than combining area of Egypt and Mesopotamia. Burnt bricks usage: Burnt bricks were used remarkably in construction of buildings in Harappa, while Egypt used dried bricks for the same purpose.

How do we know that the Indus Valley Civilization was advanced for its time? ›

Harappans demonstrated advanced architecture with dockyards, granaries, warehouses, brick platforms, and protective walls. These massive walls likely protected the Harappans from floods and may have deterred military conflicts.

What kind of similarities and differences do you find between present day terracotta and Indus Valley? ›

- Religious significance of terracotta has continued from the Indus Valley Civilization and deities can be found in almost all Hindu households. - Terracotta was and is used for cooking purpose, ornamentation, artifacts etc. the methods of firing too are similar today marking their origin to the ancient potters.

What made the Indus River Valley different from other societies of the same period? ›

The ancient Indus systems of sewage and drainage developed and used in cities throughout the Indus region were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in many areas of Pakistan and India today.

What is the relationship between the Indus Valley Civilization and Hinduism? ›

The birthplace of Hinduism is Indus River Valley which runs through northwest India into Pakistan. The Indus Valley civilization, or "Harappan civilization" originated sometime around 4,500-5,000 B.C.E. and reached its zenith between 2300 to 2000 BC.

Do you find any difference between the planning of Indus cities and present cities? ›

Answer. The ancient Indus systems of sewage and drainage that were developed and used in cities throughout the Indus Empire were far more advanced than any found in contemporary urban sites in the Middle East and even more efficient than those in some areas of modern Pakistan and India today.

What are main difference between modern towns and cities in past? ›

Answer: Jul 22, 2018 - Old cities like Orugallu lacks the modern facilities and the transportation were also not developed. ... Cities commonly have extended arrangements for housing, transport, hygiene, services, land use patterns, and communication.

What are the similarities between Indus Valley Civilization town plan and modern Indian town plan? ›

Answer: Similarities between harappa and modern town planning are as under; (i) Brick houses are used for shelter. (ii) Use of the godown system. (iii) The similar sewage system.

How was the different from most Indus cities? ›

Answer: Most cities of the Indus Valley civilisation were divided into two parts, i.e. the citadel and the lower town. Dholavira was different from most Indus cities as it was divided into three parts, i.e. the citadel, a middle town and a lower town. These parts were enclosed by stone walls.

What is difference between Indus Valley Civilization and Mohenjo Daro? ›

Mohenjo-daro was built in the 26th century BCE. It was one of the largest cities of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization, also known as the Harappan Civilization, which developed around 3,000 BCE from the prehistoric Indus culture.

What are the three main differences between civilizations and empires? ›

The most important difference between empires and civilizations lies with three main points: size, how they are governed, and growth.

What is the difference between Harappan cities and modern cities? ›

Answer: The Indus Valley cities were established on a grid plan while the modern Indian cities are not based on any such plans. 2. Both the Indus Valley and the modern Indian cities have a drainage system but the modern drainage system does not work properly when compared to the Indus Valley cities.

How were cities in the Indus River Valley different than other cities? ›

Cities featured a fortified area called a citadel, which contained the major buildings of the city. Buildings were constructed of oven-baked bricks cut in standard sizes, unlike the simpler, irregular, sun-dried mud bricks of the Mesopotamians. Early engineers also created sophisticated plumbing and sewage systems.

What are the similarities between Harappan cities and modern cities? ›

Similarities between harappa and modern town planning are as under;
  • (i) Brick houses are used for shelter.
  • (ii) Use of the godown system.
  • (iii) The similar sewage system.
  • (iv) Similar agricultural systems.
  • (v) Use of fire in daily lives.
1 Jul 2018

What is another name for the Indus Valley civilization? ›

Indus civilization, also called Indus valley civilization or Harappan civilization, the earliest known urban culture of the Indian subcontinent.

What is the Indus Valley civilization also known as? ›

Since Harappa was the first site to be discovered, the Indus valley civilisation is also referred to as the Harappan civilisation.

How was Indian civilization seen as a distinct type in comparison to other cultures? ›

According to this approach Indian civilization is seen as a distinct type in juxtaposition with other societies and culture. The emphasis is to view Indian society as a traditional society, which is experiencing processes, such as modernisation that illustrate cultural, social and historical principles.

What do you think the difference is between an empire and a civilization? ›

An empire is an extensive group of states or countries under a single supreme authority, formerly especially an emperor or empress. A civilization is the stage of human social development and organization that is considered most advanced.

What are the 3 types of civilizations? ›

A type I civilization is able to access all the energy available on its planet and store it for consumption. A type II civilization can directly consume the energy of a star. Finally, a type III civilization is able to capture all the energy emitted by its galaxy.

Videos

1. Indus Valley Civilization Part 1 - Ancient India History for UPSC | Harappa Civilization
(StudyIQ IAS)
2. The Untold Mystery of Indus Valley Civilization | Dhruv Rathee
(Dhruv Rathee)
3. Indus Valley Civilization UPSC | harappan civilization | Ancient History for UPSC
(Bookstawa)
4. 14. Vijayanagara - The Last Emperors of South India
(Fall of Civilizations)
5. 12. The Inca - Cities in the Cloud
(Fall of Civilizations)
6. Sr. Secondary, History : The World in 1900 : The Nineteen Century Legacy
(NIOS LIVE VIDEO)
Top Articles
Latest Posts
Article information

Author: Aracelis Kilback

Last Updated: 02/06/2023

Views: 6516

Rating: 4.3 / 5 (64 voted)

Reviews: 87% of readers found this page helpful

Author information

Name: Aracelis Kilback

Birthday: 1994-11-22

Address: Apt. 895 30151 Green Plain, Lake Mariela, RI 98141

Phone: +5992291857476

Job: Legal Officer

Hobby: LARPing, role-playing games, Slacklining, Reading, Inline skating, Brazilian jiu-jitsu, Dance

Introduction: My name is Aracelis Kilback, I am a nice, gentle, agreeable, joyous, attractive, combative, gifted person who loves writing and wants to share my knowledge and understanding with you.